Did you know? - The ability to encode new memories of events or facts and working memory shows decline in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Hedden & Gabrieli, 2004). Studies comparing the effects of aging on episodic memory, semantic memory, short-term memory and priming find that episodic memory is especially impaired in normal aging (Nilsson, 2003). These deficits may be related to impairments seen in the ability to refresh recently processed information (Johnson et al., 2002). In addition, even when equated in memory for a particular item or fact, older adults tend to be worse at remembering the source of their information (Johnson, Hashtroudi, & Lindsay, 1993), a deficit that may be related to declines in the ability to bind information together in memory during encoding and retrieve those associations at a later time (Naveh-Benjamin, 2000; Mitchell et al., 2000).